Summer tomato cultivation techniques in sunlight greenhouse

In order to make full use of the cool summer climate in this region, the climate characteristics of day and night temperature differences and the existing solar greenhouse facility resources, from 2002 to 2003, we carried out the demonstration and promotion of the imported hard fruit type tomato production technology in summer and summer, and the products were mainly sold to the south. Coastal cities and Southeast Asian countries. After two years of production practice, this technology is a new way for farmers in mountainous areas to invest less and benefit more. 1 The selection of the marketable variety for the over-summer tomato grows from May to October, and the harvesting period is from July to October. This period is at a high temperature and rainy season, which is extremely unfavorable to the growth of tomatoes. Therefore, the selection of varieties is demanding. We chose the Dutch hybrid generation Bailey. Its characteristics are unlimited growth type, strong growth potential, high antiviral disease, heat resistance, high dry matter content, resistance to storage and transportation, no cracking, good quality, and a vast consumer market (due to the fact that high temperatures and high humidity in the south can not be produced), Output per acre of 6000 ~ 7000kg, the spring and summer light greenhouse cultivation up to 10000kg or more, the general year can stabilize production and stable income. 2 The seeding period for the cultivation of high-quality and strong seedlings over the summer is from mid-March to mid-April. The middle and late April of the cucumbers in the solar greenhouse, winter, spring and spring will be nursed in medium and small sheds. The celery and leeks will be picked in the solar greenhouse. Or nursery in the greenhouse, seedling age of about 30 days. The nursery site is flat, easy to drain, and well-ventilated. 2.1 Pre-Nursery Preparation The nutrient soil is prepared 3 weeks before the nursery. 6 pieces of mountain soil or field soil are used, and 4 pieces of fermented organic fertilizer are mixed and sieved. 1 kg of compound fertilizer containing 15% nitrogen, 15% phosphorus and 50% carbendazim 50g per cubic meter of nutrient soil is used. 100g is evenly mixed and covered with plastic film. After 20 days of high-temperature stacking, it is put into a nutrient bowl. In order to prevent seedling roots from penetrating into the ground from the nursery hole, a layer of old film is laid on the seedbed. Planting 2,000 seedlings per acre. 2.2 Management after sowing and seeding Seeds soaked in warm water at 55°C for 15 minutes, then soaked in fresh water for 4 to 6 hours, drained and drained without germination. The foot bath water is poured into the nutrition bowl, soaked after the water is soaked, and the seeds are soaked one by one. After sowing, cover the nutrient soil 0.8 to 1 cm. Cover the insect net before covering the film on the arch. After sowing, the daytime temperature is 25-28°C before emergence, 16-20°C at night, 22-24°C during the day after cotyledon flattening, and 14-16°C during the night. After the first true leaf is unfolded, it is 25-28°C during the day and 15~15 nights. At 17°C, 20 days later, when the leaves were 2 leaves and 1 heart, they were sprayed with mefentanine once. Before colonization, they were sprayed with 72% Prec 800x and 10% imidacloprid 1500 times. When the leaves turn from light green to dark green, water it in proper amount. Planting when the seedlings 4 to 5 true leaves, seedling height 16 ~ 18cm, stem diameter 0.6 ~ 0.8cm, seedlings robust, not biting insects such as aphids. 3 Preparation before Planting 3.1 Disinfection and Fertilization of the Shed Room Immediately remove the diseased body after pulling on the larvae. Apply 3kg sulfur powder per acre, add 80% DDV EC 0.5kg, mix with sawdust, ignite and ignite, and seal for more than 24 hours. After completely clearing the sickles and weeds, apply 8 to 10 cubic meters of fermented organic fertilizer per mu, 100kg of special fertilizer for tomato, 20kg of cotton granules evenly spread on the ground, and turn it 35 to 40cm deeper. 2 times, and appropriate amount of water spray, so that the soil water holding capacity of about 60% (soil is not sticky but wet), and then covered with a new film, sealed enclosures. After 3 weeks, the film was released and the air changed, which effectively played the role of soil insecticide, sterilization, and nematode killing. 3.2 Installation of insect nets and shade nets Insect nets shall be installed at the upper and lower air vents in the greenhouse to block aphids, whiteflies and cotton bollworms from entering the room. The upper outlet is installed with a width of 1m and the lower outlet is installed with a 1.5m wide and 40-gauge insect screen. To ensure the safety of tomatoes in summer, install a shade net with a shade ratio of 50% to 60%. 3.3 Soil preparation The earthworms shall be ground and open trenches with a large row spacing of 90cm, a small row spacing of 60cm, a furrow depth of 15cm, and a biological bacterial fertilizer of 50kg per mu. After applying the ditch fertilizer, it shall be pulverized again to fully mix the fungus fertilizer and the soil. 4 Management after planting 4.1 Before planting and planting, the planters shall inject water into the bottom of the ditch and plant the seedlings into the ditch. The surface of the soil shall be 5cm above the ground, the distance between the plants shall be 50cm, and 1800 strains of mu shall be planted, and the water shall be sealed after sealing. 4.2 After cultivating tomatoes in the cultivating soil, the management is mainly to promote seedlings. 4 to 5 days after planting, the seedlings were irrigated in time and irrigated with loose soil to ensure soil protection, eliminate weeds, and promote root development. In combination with cultivator, soil is used to pour 1 water every 3 to 5 days. After each watering, the ground is slightly dry for cultivating the soil. After 2 to 3 times of soil cultivation, the ridge height reaches 25 cm. 4.3 After the temperature management is planted, high temperature weather is needed. Open the upper and lower vents on sunny days. When the room temperature reaches 30°C, use a shade net to shade (shade time is generally 11:00 to 15:00), and apply 10cm straw to the ditch to reduce the temperature. Ground temperature. Close the vent on rainy days to prevent rain from entering the room. The daytime temperature is maintained at 25 to 30°C, nighttime at 16 to 20°C, and the humidity is controlled at 50% to 65%. 4.4 Water and Fertilizer Management Watering is one of the key measures for the success or failure of Bailey tomato planting. After easing the seedlings to the fruit set, sunny day 3 to 5 days, 1 water, in case of rainy days, 7 to 10 days, pouring 1 water, prohibit flood irrigation. Watering should be done in the evening or in the morning. When the second ear is inflated and begins to swell, it is poured 5 to 7 days, and combined with water, topdressing compound fertilizer with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of 15:15 to 15:30 to 35 kg/mu. Live a fruit and topdressing 1 times, each topdressing potassium Bao 10kg. For every 7 to 10 days of foliar top dressing, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Baolifeng No. 2 etc. can be sprayed to meet the needs of fruit set and fruit enlargement. 4.5 hanging vines and plant adjustment When the seedling height 30cm, with a sack line or tear film to attract hanging vines. In the case of continuous high-temperature weather when there are leggy, spraying booster primes 1 or 2 times, can effectively control leggy. Using single stem pruning, when the 6th ear was caught, leave 2 to 3 leaves topping and all side branches were knocked out. 4.6 In order to increase the rate of fruit set under high temperature, the sparse flower and fruit should be watered one day before spraying and then sprayed with 30-40 mg/kg solution of tomato spirit to keep the stigma moist and increase the fruit setting rate. In order to increase the commodity rate, 3 to 4 fruits are to be kept in the first panicle, 4 to 5 fruits are to be left in the second panicle, and the extra, especially the first and the peripheral florets and local dense florets are to be removed. Avoid size and deformity. 5 Diseases and Insect Pests Control The main diseases of tomato in greenhouses over the summer include stem rot, virus disease, early blight, late blight, canker, leaf mold, and umbilical rot. These diseases mainly occur in those lands that are poorly managed. High temperature, high humidity, high temperature, drought, water in the field, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer, continuous rain, overcrowding, and calcium deficiency in the soil can easily lead to the occurrence of these diseases. Therefore, field management is strengthened in cultivation, ventilation is adopted, and moderate shade is adopted. Timely and appropriate amount of water, inter-row grass, reasonable dense planting, balanced fertilization and other comprehensive supporting technologies, and according to the time of different diseases prone to occur, early anti-drug prevention can effectively control the occurrence and development of various diseases. Insect pests mainly include aphids, whiteflies and leaf miners. By using insect nets and fumigation in greenhouses, they can effectively control the damage of these pests. If there are still pests in the house, yellow traps or 25% of the pests can be used. Ketai 3000 times or 1.8% abamectin 3000 times spray, 7 to 10 days 1, even spray 2 or 3 times. 6 Harvested fruit is harvested from orange to red. When harvesting, lay a 1cm thick sponge on the bottom of the harvesting basket or plastic box. Spread a layer of sponge for each layer of fruit to avoid extrusion. Use scissors to close the sacrum when harvesting, cut off the stalk, and retain the scallops. , Then use a soft towel to clean, according to customer requirements.

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