Milking machine operating principle and operation

The milking machine consists of a vacuum pump and a milking machine. The former mainly include vacuum pumps, motors, vacuum tanks, vacuum regulators, vacuum pressure gauges, etc.; the latter consists of milking buckets, beaters (or pulsators), milk collectors, milking cups, and some ducts and rubber tubes. Each milking machine includes 8 to 10 milking machines, which are sufficient for milking 100 to 120 cows. The new type of pipeline milking machine has no milking bucket. The milk flows from the milking cup through the milking device. The milk flows directly from the milking can to the outside. The vacuum pressure of the milking cup can be automatically adjusted according to the milk flow. After being squeezed, it can fall off automatically and it won't cause an "empty car." The milk storage tank is made of stainless steel. The tank is a sandwich layer with a serpentine tube. A refrigerant such as Freon 20 is used. There are 2 electric agitators in the tank, which can quickly reduce the temperature of the milk to 2~3°C. The milking machine has two beats and three beats. In China in the early 1950s, there were more than three beats in various regions. Nowadays, more than two beats are used. The working principle is as follows: 1. The two beats The so-called two beats, that is, when the milking machine is started, it produces two beats in one beat. The first beat is the sucking beat. At this time, the nipple room and the room between the walls are all vacuum, and the rubber sleeve is in the normal state. Due to the pressure difference between the nipple tube and the nipple chamber inside the nipple, the sphincter of the nipple opens, milk is sucked into the nipple chamber and then flows into the milk tank (or storage tank). The second beat is squeezing beats, when the nipple room is still in a vacuum state, but in the wall room has entered the air, when the rubber sleeve is compressed due to the pressure difference between the two chambers, the sphincter closes, the milk stops flowing out. The purpose of squeezing the beats is to massage the nipples by squeezing them in order to restore the circulation of blood on the nipples that are suppressed during the sucking beats. The pulse frequency of a two-tap milking machine is generally 48 to 60 times/min. In a pulse time, the ratio of sucking beats and squeezing beats is 1:1, which can also be adjusted to 2:8 or 3:7 or 4:6. When milking with a two-tap milking machine, the vacuum is always under the nipple so that the nipple (ie the breast cup) will gradually run into the nipple and breast. After 3 to 4 minutes of squeezing, although the milk has not been squeezed yet, the nipple The communication with the breasts is blocked, so that the discharge of milk is stopped and the milk is not easily squeezed. However, because there is no rest time, milking is faster than three beats. Two-tap milking machine When the vacuum between the inner casing and the inner casing is vacuum, the milk will be sucked out of the teat tube. When the vacuum in the inner casing of the milking cup, the inner casing and the casing When it is not a vacuum, the nipples stop discharging milk and are resting. In normal operation, the inner sleeve is kept under vacuum, and between the inner sleeve and the outer shell, due to the control of the pulsator, it is sometimes under vacuum and is sometimes filled with air. 2. The three-beat three-beat milking machine increases the third beat in addition to sucking and squeezing two beats, that is, rest beats. This easily eliminates the shortcomings of the two-tower milking machine. But milking is slower. The time taken by the three beats in one pulse is roughly: 45% for sucking beats, 15% for crushing beats, and 40% for resting beats. The operation of the milking machine is the same as manual milking. Before the milking, the breast should be scrubbed and massaged with hot water (50-55C). Turn on the switch and turn on the power to turn the motor. Adjust the vacuum pressure gauge so that the vacuum is close to 30 to 35cm, generally no more than 40cm. Then connect the rough rubber tube to the switch on the catheter and turn on the switch. At this time, grasp the milking tube of the milking cup with one hand, and open the switch on the milking bucket lid with the other hand, and then put the milking cup on the nipple from the farther side. The pulse frequency of the pulsator is generally adjusted to 50 to 60 times/min. During the milking process, the milk flow can be observed through the peep tube on the milking device. If no milk flow passes, the switch on the milking drum or the switch on the catheter should be closed, and the milking cup should be gently removed. On the milking bucket cover. The new type of teat cup can automatically fall off according to milk flow conditions. After each squeezing, milk tanks and related parts in contact with the milk should be disassembled and cleaned. First rinse with cold water and then hot water at 85°C. The method is to connect the main pipe (thick rubber pipe), open the switch on the catheter, reverse the milk collector, so that the milking cup is immersed in water, and then open the switch on the milking bucket cover, so that the water is sucked into the milking bucket, washing the squeeze After the teat cups and milk tubes are washed, the lids and barrel walls are washed. After washing, wash again with hot water, and then hang the rack on the shelf to dry. According to the experience of Hefei dairy farm in Anhui Province, the correct mechanized operation should mainly be carried out according to the following procedures. 1. Firstly squeeze three milks to start milking. Firstly, squeeze out three milks from each milk area on the black inspection plate or on the black checker plate on the big cup mouth to check whether there are milk blocks. , And observe the changes in the color of milk to determine the health of the milk area. The first few milks are mainly milk in the milk pool and often contain a lot of bacteria. During the milking period, the bacteria enters the milk pool from the nipple hole where they multiply with milk as a nutrient. The first three milks cannot be squeezed into a lot of high-quality milk, nor can they be put on the ground or on the cow's bed to prevent bacteria from infecting the healthy milk area from the teat hole. In addition, the first three milks often contain residual nipple soaking solution. 2. Cleaning and massaging the breasts (1) Cleaning the breasts The breasts are washed after the three milks have been squeezed. Do not wash the breast first and squeeze three more milk. This will cause the milk containing less bacteria to be mixed with the milk containing more bacteria in the teat pool and rise to the upper part of the breast, posing a threat to the health of the breast and increasing the number of bacteria in the commercial milk. Wash your dirty breasts with plenty of water and then wash your breasts with lukewarm water. In the milking parlour, water can be used to flush the breast heads. Wash the towel on the breast with a disinfectant in warm water and dry. (2) Massage breasts After squeezing three breasts and washing the breasts, the nipples and the breasts are not yet full and tight, indicating that the breast milk reflection has not been fully formed yet, it is necessary to continue massage the breasts until the breast milk reflection is completely formed. There are many pressure and tactile receptors on the skin of breasts and nipples. The excitatory nerves formed by massage are transmitted to the brain. Oxytocin is secreted from the pituitary gland and acts on the muscle cells around the mammary glands in the breast with the blood circulation. The squeezing mammary glands are contracted and the milk contained therein is discharged into the milk pool via the introductory milk ducts. 3. Set the teat cup When milk reflection is formed, it is necessary to put on the teat cup as soon as possible to implement milking; otherwise, the milk from the breast bubble to the milk pool will be slowed down or interrupted. The action time of oxytocin is usually maintained for 7 to 8 minutes. If the teat cup is not timely, the action time of oxytocin at the time of milking is shortened, and more milk remains in the breast. Therefore, it is generally required that the milk cup be set from the time the milk is squeezed to three minutes, because the concentration of oxytocin in the blood has risen to its peak at this time. The order of the cups is to set the cups clockwise from the milk area opposite the left hand, which is convenient and safe. Avoid cupping the air intake; do not apply cream or milk to the nipples before cupping so as to avoid premature or easy upward movement of the teat cups and to seal the passage from the breast pool to the nipple to increase the residual milk; Afterwards, check whether the hanging of the teat is normal and whether the milk is smooth, otherwise there may be a chance that the nipple will sprain or squeeze the milk in the teat cup. 4. Eliminate empty vacuum When the milk is squeezed or when there is no milk flow, the vacuum is still fully applied to the nipple, which is called empty squeeze. A large residual vacuum is easily formed in the breast during emptying, which will help the bacteria to enter the breast and retain and reproduce there; on the other hand, the inner sleeve of the teat cup will continue to move, which will reduce its service life. The method of preventing voiding is to inspect from the observation tube or observation lens. In recent years, transparent plastic cups have been created and the milk flow inside the cup can be clearly seen from the outside. 5. Extrude milk When you see no milk from the observation tube (mirror), touch the breast with your hand to check if there is milk. In general, milk can always be squeezed out. Because the breasts always tilt forward to different extents, so that the nipples also point to the lower front, when the nipples are under the gravity of the nipples, when the breast milk is less than a certain amount, the milk flow in the breasts Nipples blocked. At this time, it is necessary to press the milk in the center of the teat, press it slightly forward, and it can be applied to the four milk areas; the other hand massages the breasts again and rushes milk from different directions. If there is more residual milk, check the inner rubber sleeve and vacuum of the teat cup. Aging, loss of elasticity, breakage, etc., or excessively high vacuum (above 50 kPa) can increase the amount of residual milk. Residual milk is also related to the health of the breasts, the milker's experience and sense of responsibility. 6. Discard the milk cup. Immediately after squeezing the milk, unload the milk cup to prevent empty squeeze. The specific operations are: (1) Close the vacuum to the teats; (2) Wait for a moment until the negative pressure inside the teat cups is reduced; (3) Remove the 4 teat cups from the falling wrists or palms simultaneously; ( 4) Turn the four teat cups with their heads down, and then quickly open and close the vacuum switch several times to suck the milk remaining in the teat cups and milk tubes into the milking teat. 7. Disinfection of nipples Immediately after detaching the teat cup, dip the nipples with a solution that kills or inhibits the bacteria in the nipple and nipple holes. The breast still has residual vacuum in a short time after unloading the teat cup. It can suck a small amount of disinfectant and keep it in the nipple hole to prevent the invasion of external bacteria.

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